Note 2 – Basis of preparation, consolidation and significant accounting policies Basis of preparation The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as endorsed by the European Union. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for derivative financial instruments that have been measured at fair value. The Group’s consolidated financial statements are presented in euro (EUR), which is also the parent company’s functional currency. All values are rounded to the nearest thousand (TEUR), except when otherwise stated. Basis of consolidation The consolidated financial statements comprise the financial statements of the Group and its subsidiaries as at 31 December 2015. Control is achieved when the Group is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. Specifically, the Group controls an investee if and only if the Group has: Power over the investee (i. e. existing rights that give it the current ability to direct the relevant activities of the investee) Exposure, or rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee, and The ability to use its power over the investee to affect its returns When the Group has less than a majority of the voting or similar rights of an investee, the Group considers all relevant facts and circumstances in assessing whether it has power over an investee, including: The contractual arrangement with the other vote holders of the investee Rights arising from other contractual arrangements The Group’s voting rights and potential voting rights The Group re-assesses whether or not it controls an investee if facts and circumstances indicate that there are changes to one or more of the three elements of control. Consolidation of a subsidiary begins when the Group obtains control over the subsidiary and ceases when the Group loses control of the subsidiary. Assets, liabilities, income and expenses of a subsidiary acquired or disposed of during the year are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date the Group gains control until the date the Group ceases to control the subsidiary. Profit or loss and each component of other comprehensive income (OCI) are attributed to the shareholders of the parent company of the Group and to the non-controlling interests, even if this results in the non-controlling interests having a deficit balance. When necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of subsidiaries to bring their accounting policies into line with the Group’s accounting policies. All intra-group assets and liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows relating to transactions between members of the Group are eliminated in full on consolidation. A change in the ownership interest of a subsidiary, without a loss of control, is accounted for as an equity transaction. If the Group loses control over a subsidiary, it: Derecognises the assets (including goodwill) and liabilities of the subsidiary Derecognises the carrying amount of any non-controlling interests Derecognises the cumulative translation differences recorded in equity Recognises the fair value of the consideration received Recognises the fair value of any investment retained Recognises any surplus or deficit in profit or loss Reclassifies the parent’s share of components previously recognised in OCI to profit or loss or retained earnings, as appropriate, as would be required if the Group had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities Summary of significant accounting policies Business combinations and goodwill Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. The cost of an acquisition is measured as the aggregate of the consideration transferred measured at acquisition date fair value and the amount of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree. For each business combination, the Group elects whether to measure the non-controlling interests in the acquiree at fair value or at the proportionate share of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred and included in administrative expenses. When the Group acquires a business, it assesses the financial assets and liabilities assumed for appropriate classification and designation in accordance with the contractual terms, economic circumstances and pertinent conditions as at the acquisition date. If the business combination is achieved in stages, any previously held equity interest is re-measured at its acquisition date fair value and any resulting gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss. It is then considered in the determination of goodwill. Any contingent consideration to be transferred by the acquirer will be recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the amount recognised for non-controlling interests, and any previous interest held, over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. If the fair value of the net assets acquired is in excess of the aggregate consideration transferred, the Group re-assesses whether it has correctly identified all of the assets acquired and all of the liabilities assumed and reviews the procedures used to measure the amounts to be recognised at the acquisition date. If the re-assessment still results in an excess of the fair value of net assets acquired over the aggregate consideration transferred, then the gain is recognized in profit or loss. After initial recognition, goodwill is measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination is, from the acquisition date, allocated to each of the Group’s cash-generating units, which have been identified as the Group’s operating segments, which are expected to benefit from the combination, irrespective of whether other assets or liabilities of the acquiree are assigned to those units. Where goodwill has been allocated to a cash-generating unit and part of the operation within that unit is disposed of, the goodwill associated with the disposed operation is included in the carrying amount of the operation when determining the gain or loss on disposal. Goodwill disposed in these circumstances is measured based on the relative values of the disposed operation and the portion of the cash-generating unit retained. Joint ventures A joint venture is a type of joint arrangement whereby the parties have joint control of the arrangement. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. The parties of the arrangement have the rights to the net assets of the joint venture. The considerations made in determining joint control are similar to those necessary to determine control over subsidiaries. The Group’s investments in joint venture are accounted for using the equity method. Under the equity method, the investment in a joint venture is initially recognised at cost. The carrying amount of the investment is adjusted to recognise changes in the Group’s share of net assets of the joint venture since the acquisition date. The statement of profit or loss reflects the Group’s share of the results of operations of the joint venture. The aggregate of the Group’s share of profit or loss of a joint venture is shown on the face of the statement of profit or loss within operating profit (EBIT) and represents profit or loss after tax and non-controlling interests in the joint venture. The financial statements of the joint venture are prepared for the same reporting period as the Group. When necessary, adjustments are made to bring the accounting policies in line with those of the Group. The Group currently has interests in only one dormant joint venture. The carrying amount in the statement of financial position corresponds to the cost at initial recognition. Current versus non-current classification The Group presents assets and liabilities in the statement of financial position based on current/non-current classification. An asset is presented as current when it is: Expected to be realised or intended to sold or consumed in normal operating cycle Held primarily for the purpose of trading Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period All other assets are classified as non-current. A liability is presented as current when: It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle It is held primarily for the purpose of trading It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period The Group classifies all other liabilities as non-current. The fair values of derivative financial instruments not included in hedge accounting relationships are presented as current. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities. Fair value measurement The Group measures financial instruments, such as derivatives, at fair value at each balance sheet date. Also, fair values of financial instruments measured at amortised cost are disclosed in Note 37. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either: In the principal market for the asset or liability, or In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible to by the Group. The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest. The Group uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs. All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole: Level 1 – Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities Level 2 – Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable Level 3 – Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Group determines whether transfers have occurred between Levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period. Revenue recognition Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Group and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duty. The Group has concluded that it is the principal in all of its revenue arrangements since it is the primary obligor in all revenue arrangements, has pricing latitude and is also exposed to inventory and credit risks. The specific recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognised. Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Revenue from rendering services is recognised by reference to the stage of completion. Stage of completion is measured by reference to labour hours incurred to date as a percentage of total estimated labour hours for each contract. When the contract outcome cannot be measured reliably, revenue is recognised only to the extent that the expenses incurred are eligible to be recovered. Interest income related to financial instruments measured at amortised cost is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the net carrying amount of the financial asset or liability. Interest income is included in financial income in the statement of profit or loss. Rental income arising from operating leases on investment properties is accounted for on a straight-line basis over the lease terms and is included in revenue in the statement of profit or loss due to its operating nature. Income tax Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date in the countries where the Group operates and generates taxable income. Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences, except when the deferred tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss. Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences and tax losses carried forward. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the tax losses carried forward can be utilised, except when the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss. Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current income tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority. Foreign currencies Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Group’s entities at their respective functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date. Differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognised in profit or loss. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions. Any goodwill arising on the acquisition of a foreign operation and any fair value adjustments to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities arising on the acquisition are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign operation and translated at the spot rate of exchange at the reporting date. On consolidation, the assets and liabilities of foreign operations are translated into euros at the rate of exchange prevailing at the reporting date and their income statements are translated at average exchange rates for the period. The exchange differences arising on translation for consolidation are recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the currency translation reserve in equity and to non-controlling interests if applicable. On disposal of a foreign operation, the component of the currency translation reserve relating to that particular foreign operation is recognised in profit or loss. Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations The Group classifies non-current assets and disposal groups as held for sale if their carrying amounts will be recovered principally through a sale rather than through continuing use. Such non-current assets and disposal groups classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. The criteria for held for sale classification is regarded as met only when the sale is highly probable and the asset or disposal group is available for immediate sale in its present condition. Actions required to complete the sale should indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the sale will be made or that the sale will be withdrawn. Management must be committed to the sale expected within one year from the date of the classification. Property, plant and equipment and intangible assets are not depreciated or amortised once classified as held for sale. Assets and liabilities classified as held for sale are presented separately as current items in the statement of financial position. A disposal group qualifies as discontinued operation if it is: A component of the Group that is a CGU or a group of CGUs Classified as held for sale or already disposed in such a way, or A major line of business or major geographical area Discontinued operations are excluded from the results of continuing operations and are presented as a single amount as profit or loss after tax from discontinued operations in the statement of profit or loss. Property, plant and equipment Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the property, plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. When significant parts of property, plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Group recognises such parts as individual assets with specific useful lives and depreciates them accordingly. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows: Office buildings 25-50 years Industrial buildings 25-50 years Plant and machinery 3-15 years Equipment, tools, fixtures and fittings 3-15 years An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognised is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the income statement when the asset is derecognised. The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate. Leases The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception date. The arrangement is assessed for whether fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets or the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement. When the Group is a lessee, finance leases are recognised at the commencement of the lease at the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Finance leases are arrangements that transfer substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item to the Group. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in financial expense in the income statement. The leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Group will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term. Operating lease payments are recognised in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Leases in which the Group is the lessor and where substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of an asset are not transferred, are classified as operating leases. Borrowing costs Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale, are capitalized as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. The Group does not have any borrowings costs at present having been capitalized. Intangible assets Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of intangible assets acquired in a business combination is their fair value at the date of acquisition. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalised development costs, are not regognised and the related expenditure is reflected in profit or loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred. The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed to be finite and are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation periods and the amortisation methods are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets is recognised in the statement of profit or loss as the expense category that is consistent with the function of the intangible assets. Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit or loss when the asset is derecognised. Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development expenditures on an individual project are recognized as an intangible asset when the Group can demonstrate: The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that the asset will be available for use or sale Its intention to complete and its ability to use or sell the asset How the asset will generate future economic benefits The availability of resources to complete the asset The ability to measure reliably the expenditure during development The ability to use the intangible asset generated Following initial recognition of the development expenditure as an asset, the asset is carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation of the asset begins when development is complete and the asset is available for use. It is amortised over the period of expected future benefit. Amortisation is recorded in cost of goods sold. During the period of development, the asset is tested for impairment annually. Amortisation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives as follows: Development expenditures 5 years Patents 5 years Financial assets Financial assets are classified, at initial recognition, as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, loans and receivables, or available-for-sale financial assets, as appropriate. All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. For purposes of subsequent measurement financial assets are classified in the following categories: Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss Loans and receivables Available-for-sale financial investments Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss include financial assets held for trading. Derivatives are classified as held for trading. The Group uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts and interest rate swaps to hedge its foreign currency risks and interest rate risks respectively. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive. Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are carried in the statement of financial position at fair value with net changes in fair value presented as: Other operating income (positive net changes in fair value of foreign currency forward contracts) Other operating expense (negative net changes in fair value of foreign currency forward contracts) Financial income (positive net changes in fair value of interest swaps) Financial expense (negative net changes in fair value of interest swaps) The category loans and receivables is the most relevant to the Group. Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method, less impairment. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in financial income in the statement of profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the statement of profit or loss in financial expense for loans and in other operating expenses for receivables. This category generally applies to trade receivables. For more information on receivables, refer to Note 26. Available-for-sale (AFS) financial investments include cash and bank balances and potential equity investments. After initial measurement, AFS financial investments are subsequently measured at fair value with unrealized gains or losses recognised in OCI until the investment is derecognized or impaired, at which time the cumulative gain or loss is recognised in the statement of profit or loss. Interest earned whilst holding AFS financial investments is reported as interest income using the EIR method. A financial asset is primarily derecognised when: The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or The Group has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a “pass-through” arrangement; and either the Group has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or the Group has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset. When the Group has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Group continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Group’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Group also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Group has retained. Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Group could be required to repay. The Group assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. An impairment exists if one or more events that has occurred since the initial recognition of the asset (an incurred “loss event”), has an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset or the group of financial assets that can be reliably estimated. For financial assets carried at amortised cost, the Group first assesses whether impairment exists individually for financial assets that are individually significant, or collectively for financial assets that are not individually significant. If the Group determines that no objective evidence of impairment exists for an individually assessed financial asset, whether significant or not, it includes the asset in a group of financial assets with similar credit risk characteristics and collectively assesses them for impairment. Assets that are individually assessed for impairment and for which an impairment loss is, or continues to be, recognised are not included in a collective assessment of impairment. The amount of any impairment loss identified is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows (excluding future expected credit losses that have not yet been incurred). The present value of the estimated future cash flows is discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate. The carrying amount of the asset is reduced through the use of an allowance account and the loss is recognized in statement of profit or loss (other operating expenses). Interest income (recorded as finance income in the statement of profit or loss) continues to be accrued on the reduced carrying amount and is accrued using the rate of interest used to discount the future cash flows for the purpose of measuring the impairment loss. If a write-off is later recovered, the recovery is credited to other operating income in the statement of profit or loss. Financial liabilities Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, or other financial liabilities, as appropriate. All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of other financial liabilities, net of directly attributable transaction costs. The Group’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings and derivative financial instruments. The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below. Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are financial liabilities held for trading. This category includes derivative financial instruments. The Group uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts and interest rate swaps to hedge its foreign currency risks and interest rate risks respectively. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are carried in the statement of financial position at fair value with net changes in fair value presented as: Other operating income (positive net changes in fair value of foreign currency forward contracts) Other operating expense (negative net changes in fair value of foreign currency forward contracts) Financial income (positive net changes in fair value of interest swaps) Financial expense (negative net changes in fair value of interest swaps) The other financial liabilities category is most relevant to the Group. After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance expenses in the statement of profit or loss. This category generally applies to trade payables, interest-bearing loans and borrowings. For more information refer Note 32. A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled, or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit or loss. Offsetting financial assets and financial liabilities Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the consolidated statement of financial position if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously. Hedge accounting The Group does not apply hedge accounting at present. Inventories Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Costs incurred in bringing each product to its present location and condition, are accounted for as follows: Raw materials: purchase cost on a first in, first out basis Finished goods and work in progress: cost of direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on the normal operating capacity, but excluding borrowing costs Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. Impairment of non-financial assets The Group assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Group estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded companies or other available fair value indicators. The Group bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations, which are prepared separately for each of the Group’s CGUs to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations generally cover a period of five years. For longer periods, a long-term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year. For assets excluding goodwill, an assessment is made at each reporting date to determine whether there is an indication that previously recognised impairment losses no longer exist or have decreased. If such indication exists, the Group estimates the asset’s or CGU’s recoverable amount. A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognised in the statement of profit or loss. Goodwill has specific characteristics for impairment testing and is tested annually as at 31 December and when circumstances indicate that the carrying value may be impaired. Impairment is determined for goodwill by assessing the recoverable amount of each CGU to which the goodwill relates. When the recoverable amount of the CGU is less than its carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognised. Impairment losses relating to goodwill cannot be reversed in future periods. Cash and cash equivalents Cash and cash equivalents in the statement of financial position comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with a maturity of three months or less. Provisions Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Group expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognised as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit or loss net of any reimbursement. Provisions for warranty-related costs are recognised when the product is sold or service provided to the customer. Initial recognition is based on historical experience. The initial estimate of warranty-related costs is revised annually. Restructuring provisions are recognised only when the recognition criteria for provisions are fulfilled. The Group has a constructive obligation when a detailed formal plan identifies the business or part of the business concerned, the location and number of employees affected, a detailed estimate of the associated costs, and an appropriate timeline. Furthermore, the employees affected have been notified of the plan’s main features. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a financial expense. Contingent liabilities Contingent liabilities are present obligations that have arisen from past events, such as rental agreements, possible defaults of deliveries in the ordinary course of business for which the group has guarantee commitments and sales of accounts receivable under factoring agreements. Contingent liabilities are not recognized in the statement of financial position because it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligations. However, since it cannot be precluded that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits can be required to settle the obligations, the Group discloses the possible contingencies separately. Pensions The Group operates defined benefit pension plans in Germany and France, both unfunded. The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit plan is determined using the projected unit credit method. Re-measurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, are recognised immediately in the statement of financial position with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the period in which they occur. Re-measurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods. Past service costs are recognised in profit or loss on the earlier of: The date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and The date that the Group recognises restructuring-related costs Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability. The Group recognises changes in the net defined benefit obligation relating to service costs (comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non-routine settlements) under “Selling expenses” and “Administrative expenses” in the consolidated statement of profit or loss, while changes in the defined benefit obligation relating to interest expense are recognised under “Financial expenses” in the consolidated statement of profit or loss. The Group also provides defined benefit plan for white collar employees in Sweden which is secured by a plan provided by Alecta. According to a statement (UFR 3) from the Swedish Financial Reporting Board, this is a multi-employer defined benefit plan. The Group has not had access to information that would permit recognition of the plan as a defined benefit plan, which is why the pension plan is accounted as a defined contribution plan. Under a defined contribution plan, the Group pays predetermined contributions into a fund (a separate legal entity) and has no further legal or constructive obligation to make further payments. The pension cost to be recognized in the period is the contribution payable in exchange for service rendered by employees during the period. The remaining pension arrangements of the Group are defined contribution plans. Parent company’s accounting objectives The parent company prepares Annual Reports according to the Annual Accounts Act and the Swedish Financial Reporting Board’s recommendation RFR 2 Accounting for legal entities. RFR 2 implies that the parent company’s annual report for the legal entity must apply all, by the EU approved, IFRS and statements as far as possible within the frame of the Annual Accounts Act and considering the connection between accounting and taxation. The recommendation states what exceptions and supplements that must be made compared with accounting according to IFRS. The following differences exist between the Group’s and the parent company’s accounting objectives: Participations in subsidiaries are accounted for in the parent company according to the cost method. The parent company observes the Annual Accounts Act’s format for the income statement and statement of financial position, which among other things implies another format for equity.